What is baroque?
Among the numerous styles in art, some stand apart. This, for example, classicism and, of course, baroque. In order to fully understand what baroque is, one must first of all study the history and realities of that epoch when this style was widespread in almost all of Europe. Let's talk about the distinctive features of the Baroque in such areas of art as architecture and music.
What is the style of "baroque"
Baroque is a whole era. This style originated in medieval Italy around the end of the XVI century, and reached its heyday in the XVII-XVIII centuries, spreading in Europe, replacing the harsh Gothic. If you look for a suitable translation of this word from the Italian language, then you can stop at the option "prone to excesses." And “barocco” means “dissolved” and even “vicious”. This is the word that the Italians have chosen for this artistic style. However, the Portuguese word “barroco” (and in Portugal this style was also very common) means only “a pearl of irregular shape”. In general, this style can be described as lush, with a lot of frills, majestic, luxurious and, at the same time, quite contrasting - in short,the complete opposite of the classicism that replaced it somewhat later. Cheerful Baroque era replaced the harsh Middle Ages. That is why, instead of knightly tournaments, various amusements became common - carousels, walks, fireworks, masquerades, etc. Pretentiousness and unnaturalness at this time are the norm. All that will be so dear to the people of the Romantic era: natural behavior, modesty and other similar qualities are alien to the culture of the Baroque era. Hence, such a craving for lush wigs and hairstyles, unnatural clothes and so on.
Baroque in architecture
Despite such strange features for later epochs, the Baroque style in architecture nevertheless spawned many truly outstanding works. The names of great architects, such as Rastrelli and Bernini, Fontana and Borromini, Glaubitz and Raynaldi, will tell even a little to a very unprepared reader. As for the most significant architectural monuments of the Baroque era, let us single out, first of all, the famous Coronaro Chapel, which is located in the Church of Santa Maria della Vittoria, in Rome.Also note that the Baroque has created many branches, among which we will highlight such styles as Spanish Baroque, Sicilian Baroque, French Baroque (and a little later - Rococo) and Moscow Baroque, which we will discuss in more detail.
What is Moscow Baroque
That is the name of the architectural style in which at the end of the XVII - beginning of the XVIII centuries. Russia was built many buildings. The standard design of door and window openings, similar columns and other architectural elements make buildings made in this style very recognizable. It should also be noted that the Moscow Baroque subsequently developed into several independent architectural styles, which got their name from the names of nobles and boyars, in whose lands such buildings were built. From the main styles, originating from Moscow baroque, we single out the Naryshkinsky, Golitsinsky, Stroganovsky styles and the style of Prozorovsky. But here is a small list of the most significant architectural monuments (of the surviving ones) built in Moscow baroque style: the Refectory Chamber of the Simonov Monastery, the Resurrection Temple in Kadashi, the Assumption Cathedral in Ryazan, the Assumption Cathedral in Astrakhan, the Peter and Paul Cathedral in Kazan, the Tobolsk Kremlin.The last monument, many art critics refer to a rather distinctive style - the so-called Siberian baroque.
What is baroque in music
Replaced by the music of the Renaissance, the music of the Baroque era is much more expressive. At the same time, like all creations of a given epoch, she is somewhat fanciful - in some places too, and also very emotional. Although, it should be noted that the baroque work often expresses some one particular emotion: joy or sadness, fun or sadness, etc.). As for the differences directly in the construction of compositions, then (musicians will understand me) to replace the tonic shift in the third, characteristic of the music of the Renaissance, the shift of the tonic began to occur in quarts and quints. Among the outstanding composers of the Baroque epoch, I will note C. Monteverdi, D. Buckstehude, A. Scarlatti, T. Albinoni, A. Vivaldi, I. Bach, GF Handel, J. Pergolesi and, of course, my beloved G. F. Telemann.
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