What are the mushrooms?
Mysterious species of living organisms, which today is not fully understood - mushrooms. Living on our planet for over a billion years, they comprise about a million species, of which man was able to explore, classify and describe only 5% - 70,000 species. One of the very first inhabitants of the planet Earth has amazing healing properties. Few people know that the medicine that saved millions of lives is an antibiotic that is the product of his life activity. The most interesting fact: the residents of the villages near Opochka (Pskov region) have never suffered from oncological diseases. Veselka fungus saves them, polysaccharides of which produce perforin, which is able to make holes in the membrane of cancer cells. And, the latter simply die off.
Kingdom of mushrooms
The super kingdom of eukaryotes unites the plant kingdom, the animal kingdom and ... the kingdom of mushrooms. Yes, because of their special properties, mushrooms belong to the kingdom of mushrooms. They can not be called animals, but plants too.
With plants, mushrooms have common characteristics:
- the presence of a cell wall;
- the ability to synthesize vitamins;
- immobility in a vegetative state;
- spore reproduction;
- absorption of food by adsorption (absorption).
But there are features common with animals:
- lack of chloroplasts and photosynthetic pigments;
- accumulation of glycogen as a storage substance;
- the presence of chitin cell wall, which is characteristic of the skeleton of arthropods;
- formation and excretion of urea.
Variety of mushrooms
Mushrooms are divided into higher fungi, lower fungi and mushroom-like organisms. Higher fungi include classes: ascomycetes, zygomycetes, deuteromycetes, and basidiomycetes. They are also called real mushrooms. They have completely lost the flagellated stages, a specific polysaccharide - chitosan - is part of the cell walls. Also in the composition of cells are polymers of glucose and chitin.
Classes include chyridiomycetes, oomycetes, and some others. The reproduction of these fungi occurs with the help of zoospores. Mushroom-like organisms include actinomycetes, many of which produce antibiotics.
Parasitic mushrooms include
- False tinder
- Root sponge
- Autumn honeycomb and others.
Tree parasites are especially dangerous. For example, the mycelium sprouts can spread under the bark, implanting in the wood and moving along the roots from one stem to another. Thus, they can hit a large area of forest. Most often, shade affects forests with weakened trees and in a short time is capable of destroying a significant number of them. Fossil on dead wood is actively developing, contributing to its decomposition.
By tubular mushrooms include
- Aspen mushrooms.
Mushrooms that have a typical stem and cap, the lower part of which consists of small holes and forms spores. Among the tubular no poisonous mushrooms, but there are conditionally edible, which require prior preparation before use. They can only be met in a wooded area; they do not grow in open areas.
For mushrooms include gruzd, saffron, champignon, honey agaric and others. Their main difference from tubular ones is the presence of plates in the lower part of the cap where spores are formed. The color of the spore powder often helps to recognize the type of fungus — edible or poisonous.
Poisonous mushrooms include
- Pale grebe (absolutely poisonous mushrooms).
- Satanic mushroom
- False mushrooms (toxicity can be reduced during cooking).
The listed above mushrooms are allocated in separate subspecies of mushrooms. They have become toxic due to unfavorable environmental conditions.
There are 32 species of poisonous mushrooms. The most harmless of them - poisonous champignon, undercooked garlic - can cause frustration an hour after eating. The second group - hallucinogens - is characterized by indigestion, sweating, nausea and vomiting, which occur 2 hours after eating. It is also possible manifestations of laughter, crying, etc. The third group - pale grebe, sulfur-yellow mite - cause damage to the liver, kidneys and other important organs, provoking irreversible processes.
Given that the world of fungi is very poorly understood, the definitions of what mushrooms belong to are rather arbitrary and unstable. Perhaps tomorrow another discovery will change our understanding of them.
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