• What are the minerals?

    Russia, among other countries of the world, occupies a leading place in mineral reserves. What minerals are mined in the bowels of the country at the moment? Everyone knows that at the present time, more than 20,000 deposits of various types have been discovered on the territory of the Russian Federation. The country has large deposits of coal, gold, aluminum raw materials, tin, platinum, tungsten, graphite, nickel and other types of minerals. In this article, we will discuss in detail what minerals in Russia are and their types. Of course, the predominant mineral resources are solid, which are located almost throughout the country. We will also consider in detail what kind of mineral is combustible, as well as the most important strategic raw material that provides energy for its country - coal, oil, natural gas and peat.

    Liquid minerals

    Many people are interested in what liquid minerals are available in Russia? Let's try to answer:


    Everyone knows that the country ranks fifth in oil production. These resources are mainly concentrated in the northern and eastern regions of Russia, western Siberia, as well as in the Arctic shelves. Currently, no more than half of all discovered reserves are involved in the development, starting from the beginning of the XXI century. On average, exploited deposits have a developed reserve of not more than 45%. Oil deposits are mainly found in mountain sedimentary rocks ranging from Vendian to Neogene, as well as in Paleozoic and Mesozoic sediments.

    At present, Russia has identified the main oil and gas provinces: Volga-Ural, West Siberian, Caspian, Timan-Pechora, North-Caucasian-Mangyshlak, Leno-Tungusskaya, Okhotsk, Yeniseisk-Anabar, Lena-Vilyuyskaya, and Baltic, East Kamchatka and Anadyr oil and gas areas.

    Ground, artesian and mineral waters

    About 3367 groundwater deposits are known in Russia. Of these, less than 50% are currently in operation.

    Solid minerals


    In terms of coal reserves, Russia is second only to the United States and China.Explored coal deposits are established in the Devonian and Pliocene sediments. The main coal basins are: Pechora, Kuznetsk, South Yakutsk and part of the Donets Basin located in Russia.

    In western Siberia, in the spurs of the Kuznetsk Alatau, there is one of the largest coal basins. It is he who is currently the most used, among all others. Coal is also being mined in the Donetsk region in the southeast and northeast of the country, where the Donetsk and Pechersk coal basin is located.

    In the Central Siberian Plateau and Yakutia there are also large reserves of coal, but due to poor development of the territory and difficult climatic conditions, they are practically not used, being considered promising. The most famous and largest brown coal deposit is Kansko-Anachinskoye, which is located in the Krasnoyarsk Territory.


    About 46,000 peat deposits were identified in Russia, of which the largest percentage, namely 76%, is in the Asian part of the republic, and the rest in the European part. The largest reserves of this mineral are located in the north-western regions of the country, as well as in Siberia and the Urals.The largest deposit is Vasyuganskoye, which is located in Western Siberia.

    Iron ore

    Many people are wondering what kind of minerals in Russia are in the first place in the world in terms of proven total reserves - this is iron ore - (264 billion tons). Iron ore deposits are distinguished by a large depth, as well as enhanced strength and complex mineral composition, which has 16-32% of iron in its content.

    The fields are mainly concentrated in the European part of the country. One of the largest swimming pools in the world is Kursk Magnetic Anomaly. Russian deposits are represented by all genetic types and are characterized by an industrial content of titanium, iron and vanadium, as well as a low content of phosphorus and sulfur. The magmatic deposits are located in the Urals, in Karelia, the Altai Mountains, in the Transbaikalia and the eastern Sayan mountains.


    At this time, Russia ranks fourth in the world in terms of gold reserves, sharing it with Canada. The country has five large deposits, as well as more than 200 primary and more than one hundred complex. The main part of the gold reserves is concentrated in the Far East and East-Siberian region. Approximately 80% of the reserves are in the ore deposits, and the rest is alluvial.

    Titanium ore

    This type of minerals is divided into two main types: loose and indigenous. Primary deposits contain low content of titanium dioxide, yielding to Norway and Canada. Ore is mined from ancient coastal-marine rocks, as well as aluminum placers of ilmenite. These deposits are located in the Urals, on the East European Platform, in Transbaikalia, and also in Eastern and Western Siberia.


    It is believed that Russia occupies a leading place in the world in terms of silver reserves. 73% of deposits are concentrated in complex ores of gold and non-ferrous metals. The largest amount of silver among complex deposits can be identified: Uzelskoe, Gaisk and Podolsk deposits, where the silver content is measured from 10-30 grams. About 98% of the main silver reserves in Russia are located in the East-Sykhot-Alin and Okhotsk-Chukot volcanic belts located in the republic. All deposits belong to volcanic-hydrothermal formations and are postmatical.

    Gaseous Minerals

    Natural gas

    Russia ranks first in the world in natural gas reserves.On the balance of the country is 867 fields with a stock of free gas. They are concentrated mainly in Siberia and Eastern regions of Russia. Here are concentrated the largest gas fields, such as: Uregoyskoye, Yamburgskoye, Balakhninskoe, Medvezhye, Kharasaveyyskoye and others.

    In recent years, new natural gas fields have been discovered on the territory of Russia, namely, the Shtokmanovskoye field located on the shelf of the Barents Sea and the Leningrad gas condensate field located on the shelf of the Red Sea.

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