What are the chemical properties of metals?
The concept of chemical properties of metals is very often used in the school curriculum. Let's try to consider what their most basic chemical properties are.
This is the name of the ability of a metal to dissolve in a solvent specially designed for this purpose. Both caustic alkali and strong acid can be such a solvent. If we talk about industry, the most popular acids are hydrochloric and nitric, as well as their mixture, which is popularly referred to as "royal vodka." During the interaction, the metal may not immediately "dissolve", only its upper layers will undergo damage. But sometimes after reaction with a similar solution, the metal turns into powder.
For example, if you just need to get a smooth surface by etching, then it is advisable to use liquids to partially dissolve the metals.
This property shows the ability of certain metals to interact with a gas such as oxygen, as well as the ability to form oxides. Sometimes this property allows metals to obtain complete corrosion resistance for a long time, which is very necessary when operating in difficult weather conditions. Also, oxidability is used when welding and brazing metals, because the film prevents direct contact with the clean surface of a particular metal. We continue to consider what general chemical properties of metals exist today.
This property allows the metal to resist destruction under the adverse effects of the environment. If we consider this process from a chemical point of view, we can see that it is caused by such a very important problem as oxidation. When moisture appears on the metal surface, oxygen interacts with the metal surface and there are corrosion traces on it. When metal interacts with another metal, they form a so-called galvanic pair, in which the electromotive force will be much greater than in each metal separately.When metal interacts with gases, they create a complex process that is directed towards equilibrium.
If we talk about real conditions, then equilibrium is achieved very rarely in them, which is why thermodynamic calculations, which relate to finding the equilibrium state, show only the direction of interaction.
There are several cases when alkali metals interact with oxygen. Their chemical properties are similar to the general category of properties.
If we talk about the interaction of alloys with gases, then we can note three cases:
- The absolute mutual intensity that is observed when a completely different metal melts in gases such as helium and argon.
- The gas is completely insoluble in the metal. Such a reaction is observed during the reaction of metals with liquid droplets that penetrate into the metal and pollute it there.
- Gases in the interaction with the metal form solutions.
Reaction with oxygen
Best of all, all metals interact with a gas like oxygen. If we talk about low-melting metals, they cannot dissolve oxygen, all they can do is to obtain oxide films on the surface of the metal itself.
The chemical properties of alkaline earth metals allow oxygen to dissolve, but only in certain quantities and only after that oxides are formed.
One of the most unusual endothermic processes is the dissolution of nitrogen in nickel, manganese or iron. The result of this process will be the formation of porosity from gases.
As for titanium, nitrogen is dissolved in it and releases a considerable amount of heat. In liquid metals, nitrogen is dissolved in proportion to the content of other components in it.
If we consider metals such as tin and copper, then for them nitrogen is nothing but an inert gas.
Reaction with water
As a result of the interaction, completely different reactions may occur, depending on which metal the water reacts with. The melt may undergo oxidation, and the hydrogen will escape into the atmosphere, or hydrogen and oxygen together will dissolve and disappear.
These are the basic chemical properties of metals. Thus, the list formed by the chemical properties of metals is not so long. Grade 9 was left behind, but thanks to this article you remembered what you learned in school at that time.
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