The composition of human blood
What is the composition of human blood? Blood is one of the tissues of the body, consisting of plasma (the liquid part) and cellular elements. Plasma is a homogeneous transparent or slightly turbid liquid with a yellow tint, which is the intercellular substance of the blood tissues. Plasma consists of water in which substances (mineral and organic) are dissolved, including proteins (albumin, globulins and fibrinogen). Carbohydrates (glucose), fats (lipids), hormones, enzymes, vitamins, individual components of salts (ions) and some metabolic products.
Together with the plasma, the body removes metabolic products, various poisons and immune complexes of the antigen-antibody (which occur when foreign particles enter the body as a protective reaction to remove them) and all that is unnecessary, which prevents the body from working.
Composition of blood: blood cells
Cellular elements of blood are also heterogeneous. They consist of:
- erythrocytes (red blood cells);
- white blood cells (white blood cells);
- platelet count (blood platelets).
Red blood cells - red blood cells.Transport oxygen from the lungs to all human organs. It is the erythrocytes that contain iron-containing protein - bright red hemoglobin, which attaches oxygen to the lungs from the inhaled air, and then gradually transfers it to all organs and tissues of different parts of the body.
White blood cells - white blood cells. Responsible for immunity, i.e. for the ability of the human body to resist various viruses and infections. There are different types of white blood cells. Some of them are aimed directly at the destruction of bacteria or various foreign cells that have penetrated the body. Others are involved in the development of special molecules, the so-called antibodies, which are also necessary for combating various infections.
Platelets - blood platelets. Help the body to stop the bleeding, ie, regulate blood clotting. For example, if you have damaged a blood vessel, then a blood clot will occur at the injury site, after which a crust forms, respectively, the bleeding will stop. Without platelets (and along with them a number of substances that are contained in the blood plasma) clots will not form,therefore, any injury or nosebleeds, for example, can lead to large blood loss.
The composition of the blood: the norm
As we wrote above, there are red blood cells and white blood cells. So in normal red blood cells (red blood cells) in men should be 4-5 * 1012 / l, in women 3.9-4.7 * 1012 / l. Leukocytes (white blood cells) - 4-9 * 109 / l of blood. In addition, 180-320 * 109 / l of platelets (platelets) are in 1 µl of blood. In normal cell volume is 35-45% of the total blood volume.
The chemical composition of human blood
Blood washes every cell of the human body and every organ, therefore it reacts to any changes in the body or lifestyle. Factors affecting the composition of the blood are quite diverse. Therefore, in order to correctly read the test results, the doctor needs to know about bad habits and about the physical activity of a person and even about the diet. Even the environment and that affects the composition of the blood. Also on the indicators of blood affects everything related to metabolism. For example, consider how a normal food intake changes blood counts:
- Eating before a blood test to increase the concentration of fat.
- Fasting for 2 days will increase bilirubin in the blood.
- Fasting for more than 4 days will reduce the amount of urea and fatty acids.
- Fatty foods will increase the levels of potassium and triglycerides.
- Excessive ingestion of meat will increase the level of urates.
- Coffee to increase glucose, fatty acids, white blood cells and red blood cells.
The blood of smokers is significantly different from the blood of people leading a healthy lifestyle. However, if you lead an active lifestyle, you need to reduce the intensity of training before taking a blood test. This is especially true of testing for hormones.
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