Properties of matter
If we look around us, we will see that the world around us is a combination of the most diverse phenomena, things and objects. All of them are characterized by different properties. Some of them are quite simple, while others are complex. Some have microscopic dimensions, and some are huge. In order to understand the essence of these things, objects or phenomena, our sense organs are sometimes sufficient. And only abstract thinking can help us comprehend the essence of others.
However, in spite of all its diversity, all objects, things and phenomena of the world around have one thing in common, the main feature itself - they all do not depend on the consciousness of people. This is the main property of matter. Thus, it can be said that matter is an objective reality.
The main properties of matter
Currently, the following levels of organization of matter:
- Fields and elementary particles;
- Atoms and molecules;
- Gases, liquids and all macro bodies;
- Various space objects (nebulae, galaxies, etc.);
- Objects of wildlife (biological level);
- Society or social level.
The properties of matter, regardless of what level it is referred to, have much in common. These properties include: time, space and movement. It is these properties that ensure the existence of matter.
Matter is infinite and eternal, because in time it has always been, is and will be. Thus, it is possible to formulate one more universal property of matter: any kind of matter is incompatible and indestructible. Matter is not taken from nowhere and does not disappear into nowhere; it simply passes from one state to another. This property of matter has found its full confirmation in such well-known laws as the law on the conservation of mass or energy. In accordance with them, some kind of matter may disappear, but then, other types of matter will appear, moreover, in an exact quantitative ratio.
Another common property of any matter is reflection. The meaning of this concept is that different types of matter interact with each other, which leads to the emergence of their changes. The most simple example of this is the appearance of traces in the snow or hoarfrost on the window pane.
Properties of living matter
One of the most difficult levels of the organization of matter is the biological level. Distinctive properties of living matter from non-living are:
- The possibility of self-reproduction. Any type of biological matter can be made more than once, due to the availability of information encoded in DNA molecules;
- Self-regulation of vital processes. The process of synthesis and decomposition of substances inside the cells is regulated by the enzymes that the cell produces on its own;
- Growth. It is carried out by increasing the number and size of cells;
- The hierarchy of the organization. The unit of a biological being is a cell. In turn, cells form tissues, tissues - organs, and organs - organ systems;
- Metabolism and energy;
- Food. Receiving from the external environment of substances and energy that are necessary for the maintenance of vital activity;
- Irritability. All living creatures are able to respond to changing conditions of the internal and external environment, which ensures the stability of their livelihoods. In fact, irritability - this is a manifestation of another common property of matter - reflection;
- Homeostasis.All living organisms live in an environment in which changes are constantly taking place. However, the intensity of the physiological processes and the constancy of the chemical composition are maintained inside the cells using special auto-regulating mechanisms;
- Motion. All living creatures have the ability to move. Although it may have different mechanisms and flow at different speeds.
Properties of highly organized matter
By highly organized matter include the human brain. One of its main properties is the ability to reflect the world around us, i.e. consciousness. It is due to this property that a person has thoughts and emotions, an ability to think, to understand the surrounding reality, to transform-practical activity.
Another property of highly organized matter is memory. At its core, it is another manifestation of consciousness.
A special property of organized matter can be called the human psyche. Due to this property, people are endowed with the ability, not only to receive information about the surrounding reality, but also on the basis of this to regulate their internal environment, behavior characteristics.All this allows a person to adapt to living in constantly changing conditions. If it is simpler to say, the properties of highly organized matter allow us to respond correctly to all environmental changes, to develop new additional forms of interaction with what surrounds us. At the same time, these forms of interaction are much more beneficial, flexible and extensive for development and existence than in living organisms, which are limited to the external environment only by physiological relationships.
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