How to make a steam heating do it yourself: device, rules and requirements
The main advantage of steam heating is its cheapness. The efficiency of such systems is almost 2 times higher than that of water systems. Consequently, the fuel for space heating when using communications of this type have to spend less.
What is worth knowing
Despite the high return and cheapness, in industrial construction steam heating systems are equipped exclusively at enterprises. To use them for heating residential premises in multi-storey buildings does not allow existing standards.
This prohibition is primarily related to the fact that steam circulating through pipes in systems of this type is heated to enormous temperatures, well above 100 ° C. Consequently, the operation of steam heating in homes can be dangerous. That is, owners of private residential buildings can equip such communications with their own hands solely at their own peril and risk.
Varieties of steam heating systems
In country houses, only two main types of similar systems are being equipped. By the type of coolant circulation such communications can be closed or open. In the systems of the first type, the condensate formed during the cooling of steam is fed back to the boiler by gravity. For this purpose, the reception pipe brought into the unit is simply installed with a downward slope. In open circuits, condensate is preliminarily collected through a branch pipe into a separate container, and then pumped into the boiler through a pump.
Mounted in private homes, most often self-flowing steam heating systems. After all, the main advantage of communications of this type is precisely their cheapness. The electricity needed to operate the pump is expensive.
Boiler selection rules
First of all, if you want to equip the house with steam heating, you should, of course, decide on the type and capacity of the heating unit. The boilers in such systems can work on any type of fuel - electricity, gas, wood, diesel fuel, etc.
Very often for the arrangement of steam heating using the most economical solid fuel equipment of this type.However, such boilers, unfortunately, are quite inconvenient in operation.
Electric steam heating units are cheaper than gas. But in the future their operation is much more expensive. Therefore, the best option for arranging heating with steam, as with the installation of conventional water, is to use a boiler that runs on natural gas.
The required power of the heating unit is calculated taking into account primarily the size of the house itself. It is believed that 25 kW steam boilers are suitable for buildings with an area of less than 200 m². It is this equipment that is purchased for heating cottages and country houses most often. For private cottages with an area of 200-300 m², in most cases it is necessary to buy units for 30 kW.
When choosing such equipment, among other things, it should be borne in mind that the use of household boilers with a pressure higher than 6 atm in private residential buildings is prohibited.
The vapor pressure in the lines of such systems can actually be very strong. Therefore, conventional plumbing polypropylene or plastic pipes used in the construction of steam heating is impossible.Only the strongest pipes made from can be used for the assembly of such systems:
- galvanized steel;
Plain steel - durable material. The pipes made from it are able to withstand enormous pressure. However, this metal in an aggressive humid environment, unfortunately, quickly rust. In addition, when assembling a contour of such pipes it is necessary to use welding.
Copper pipelines do not rust, are durable and can last for many years. But they are at the same time very expensive.
The advantages of galvanized pipes, among other things, include the fact that they:
- do not corrode;
- cost less than copper;
- are going to the trunk using not welding, but threaded connections.
It is such convenient to install and durable pipes and are used when assembling steam heating systems with their own hands by owners of country houses most often.
Purchase of radiators
Batteries during the installation of such systems can be installed the same as in the arrangement of conventional water. But it is believed that the most reliable cast-iron radiators are best for assembling a steam heating system.The worst option for such communications, according to the owners of country houses, are steel panel batteries.
When installing a steam heating system with their own hands, in the first stage, the boiler itself is installed. In this case, it is desirable to have a heating unit in a room specially designated for this purpose. You can even install the boiler in a separate building, for example, in the garage. This will not affect the efficiency of heating.
Mounted steam units, as well as conventional, in accordance with their design features. The boiler can be mounted on the wall or installed on the floor. A solid flue, diesel or gas steam heating equipment must be connected to the chimney.
Build an open system: the main steps
After the boiler is installed, the installation of the steam monotube system is continued in the following order:
- On the walls hang radiators. It is recommended to have them under the windows. In this case, the batteries will create a reliable heat curtain on the premises.
- Stretching highway.It is allowed to mount it in open steam systems both over the walls and in their thickness. However, the second technique is allowed to apply only if heat-resistant materials are used to manufacture the building envelope.
- Consistently connect radiators to the highway. Insertion in monotube systems produced through the lower pipes.
- Install a pipe for air removal, a water drain / fill unit, an expansion tank, automatic control devices, a safety device, a filter.
- Close the contour to the boiler.
How to make a two-pipe wiring
When installing closed steam heating systems, the upper wiring diagram is applied. In this case:
- steam line is let through the ceiling;
- pipes are laid from it down to the radiators;
- bottom of the condensate is pulled.
When assembling communications of this type, the supply pipe is laid with a bias towards the movement of steam. At the same time, the discharge line is mounted at a small angle in the direction of the condensate.
Sometimes private homes use a slightly different layout of highways.In this case, the steam line does not fit under the ceiling, but just above the radiators. They draw pipes in such a system approximately at the level of window sills.
The scheme of laying of highways of this type has almost all the same advantages that are given by the upper two-pipe one. However, as well as open, the layout of such a variety is different, and one rather serious drawback. The pipes in this case are within the reach of humans and domestic animals. Accordingly, the probability of accidentally getting burns increases.
The final stage
After the boiler and radiators are connected by lines, and all the necessary control and monitoring equipment is installed, test run the system. If problems are found, perform corrective work.
The radiators in the steam system, like the pipes, heat up very much. Therefore, at the final stage, they must be closed with protective gratings or any other heat-resistant decorative elements.
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