How to build the foundation
Preparation for construction
Before building a foundation, clean the construction site of debris, shrubs, weeds and trees. Align the surface and carry out the alignment work, marking a straight line on the ground, which is equal to the length of one of the sides of the foundation and hammer along the edges of the reinforcement. Then break the corners in 90 degrees, measure the length of the transverse sides and also fix their ends with reinforcement. Stretch a thick fishing line along the outer perimeter of the foundation.
To check the correct markings, measure the length of the diagonals of the resulting rectangle - they must be the same.
When finished with the markup, dig between the calculated depth and the stretched line of the trench. The estimated depth should be 20 centimeters below the level of soil freezing in the construction area and measured from the ground level at the lowest angle. To level the bottom of the excavated trenches in one level, use an engineering or water level - otherwise, different height of the underground part of the foundation will give uneven subsidence during operation.At the bottom of the trench lay a layer of river sand 15 centimeters thick, pour it with water and tamp. Trench the walls of the trench roofing material or cement mortar, so that the water from the concrete did not go into the ground.
Measure 5-7 centimeters up from the bottom of the trench and lay 3 reinforcement bars with a diameter of 12 millimeters. Crosswise (pitch 30-35 centimeters) position the mounting rods and fasten them to the fixture with a knitting wire. Make similar frames in the middle and upper part of the foundation, tying them to vertical sections of reinforcement with a diameter of 8 millimeters. Then fill the trench with concrete at one time and compact the mixture, leveling and smoothing the surface with a trowel.
A week later, when the concrete grasps, erect the basement of the foundation of blocks, bricks, solid concrete or natural stone. Then make the formwork, knocking the boards of cutting boards, plywood or chipboard. Fasten them along the outer and inner perimeter of the foundation and attach them to the posts driven into the ground.
To make the formwork rigid, support it from the outside with struts and join the tops of the uprights with wire twists.
Before pouring concrete, close the shields from the inside with polyethylene or roofing felt and place the reinforcement frames inside. After hardening the concrete, remove the formwork and cover the foundation with waterproofing from hot construction bitumen and a layer of roofing material. Cover the lateral sinuses with sand and tamp it carefully. To prevent water from leaking out, arrange a 1-meter-wide blind area on the outside of the building. Your foundation is ready.
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