How is rectal cancer manifested
There are several factors that trigger the development of the disease. These include dietary habits - the predominance in food of large quantities of meat, smoked meats, easily digestible and high-calorie foods and a low fiber content. This almost always leads to constipation, and carcinogens in food can last long on the intestines.
Another significant risk factor is the presence of chronic inflammatory bowel diseases (proctitis, rectal fissures, non-specific ulcerative colitis) and rectal polyps. Also at risk for the development of colorectal cancer are patients with papillomavirus infection and lovers of anal sex.
Rectal cancer develops rather slowly - it takes about 2 years for the tumor to clasp it. Then the tumor begins to grow into the wall of the intestine or into its lumen, into the adjacent organs, pelvic bones. Symptoms of the disease depend on the stage of its development, the location of the tumor and the nature of its growth. There are four groups of signs of cancer of the rectum.
The first and most frequent symptom is bleeding from the anus of varying intensity, most often they are minor, in the form of clots or impurities in the blood feces of scarlet. Often, along with blood, pus and mucus are secreted, this is due to the presence of concomitant diseases and the inflammatory process.
The second symptom is a violation of the stool, which manifests itself as an alternation of constipation and diarrhea, gas incontinence, abdominal distension and false urges to defecate (tenesmus). Tenesmus is very painful for the patient, accompanied by the release of pus and mucus. After a bowel movement, the patient has a feeling of the presence of a foreign body in the rectum, it does not bring relief, they can appear up to 15 times a day.
Another sign of the disease is pain in the rectum, but they appear only at a late stage of the disease, when the tumor begins to grow into the surrounding tissues. At the very beginning of the disease, pain occurs only when the tumor is localized in the anal sphincter area, while patients try to sit sideways, on one side of the buttock, to reduce pain.
Also a symptom of the disease is a sharp general weakness, weight loss, pallor of the skin.These symptoms are associated with the development of anemia due to daily bleeding, and at later stages due to the development of cancer intoxication. In the case of a germination of a tumor into the intestinal lumen, intestinal obstruction may begin, its symptoms are abdominal pains of a cramping nature, rumbling, gas and stool retention.
The treatment of the disease is only surgical, and radiation therapy in combination with chemotherapy is also widely used. The prognosis depends on the stage at which treatment is initiated and on the localization of the tumor.
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